Research on Rivalry

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Havard, C. T (2014). Glory Out of Reflected Failure: The examination of how rivalry affects sport fans. Sport Management Review, 17, 243-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2013.09.002.

– Interviews with fans of intercollegiate athletics revealed four themes:
– Socialization – the introduction of the fan to the favorite team.
– In-group bias – the level of derogation displayed toward the rival team.
– Sense of Satisfaction – the satisfaction a fan receives when their favorite team defeats the rival team in direct competition.
– Out-group Indirect Competition – the feelings a fan experiences when the rival team is successful or unsuccessful in contests not involving the favorite team.
– Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) – “the enjoyment one gets from the defeat of their favorite team’s rival by a team other than the favorite” (p.250).
– GORFing extends schadenfreude and supports in-group bias.

Havard, C. T., Gray, D. P., Gould, J., Sharp, L. A., & Schaffer, J. J. (2013). Development and validation of the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS). Journal of Sport Behavior, 36, 45-65.
– The Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS) was developed and validated using fans of intercollegiate athletics.
– The SRFPS measures four aspects of a rivalry:
– Out-group Indirect Competition (OIC) – The likelihood that a fan will support the athletic efforts of the favorite team’s rival in indirect competition.
– Out-group Academic Prestige (OAP) – The amount of respect a fan has for the academic prestige of the institution where the favorite team’s rival plays.
– Out-group Sportsmanship (OS) – The perceptions of fan sportsmanship of the favorite team’s rival.
– Sense of Satisfaction (SoS) – The satisfaction a fan gets when the favorite team defeats the favorite team’s rival.
– The SRFPS can be used to measure the degree of negative perceptions of a rival team.

Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Ryan, T. D. (2013). Investigating the impact of conference realignment on rivalry in intercollegiate athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(4), 224-234.
– Investigation of intercollegiate fans of teams that switched athletic conferences.
– Fans reserved more negative perceptions of the rival in the conference the favorite team was leaving than the conference the favorite team was joining.
– Fans were less likely to support the rival via indirect competition in the conference the favorite team was leaving than the rival in the conference the favorite team was joining.
– Fans were more likely to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression toward the rival in the conference the favorite team was leaving than the conference the favorite team was joining.

Havard, C. T., Reams, L., & Gray, D. P. (2013). Perceptions of highly identified fans regarding rival teams in United States intercollegiate football and men’s basketball. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 14, 116-132.
– Found that the team followed (football or basketball), season ticket holder status, and the outcome of the most recent rivalry game caused differences in perceptions of a rival team.
– Fans of basketball teams, season ticket holders, and fans of teams that lost the most recent rivalry contest held stronger negative perceptions of the academic prestige at the rival institution.
– Season ticket holders and fans of teams that lost the most recent rivalry contest experienced more satisfaction when their favorite team beat the rival team in direct competition.

Havard, C. T. & Eddy, T. (2013). Qualitative assessment of rivalry and conference realignment in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 6, 216-235. Published online September, 2013.
– Interviews with fans of teams that changed athletic conferences found that:
– Fans have a fundamental need for rivalry with other teams in a conference.
– Fans will find many ways to derogate or put down a rival team.
– Fans felt a rivalry developed through a history of on-field competition, and believed the rivalry would diminish following conference realignment. Fans were also excited to be joining a new conference and were readily identifying teams in the new conference to call rival.

Havard, C. T. (in press). Rivalry among teams and conferences in intercollegiate athletics: Does a conference pride phenomenon exist? Journal of Contemporary Athletics.
– Evidence that fans of different teams and conference affiliation hold different rival perceptions.

Wann, D. L., Havard, C. T., Grieve, F. G., Lanter, J. R., Partridge, J. A., & Zapalac, R. K. (in press) Investigating sport rivals: Number, evaluations, and relationship with team identification. Journal of Fandom Studies.
– Illustrates that the level of identification with a favorite team can impact the way a fan perceives their rival.

Havard, C.T., & Reams, L. (in press). Investigating differences in fan rival perceptions between conferences in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior.
– Provides supporting evidence that fans in different conferences report different perceptions of rival teams.
– SEC fans less willing than fans in Big Ten and Big 12 to support their most significant rival in a game against another team.
– SEC fans perceived the academic prestige and fan behavior of their most significant rival more negatively than fans in any other conference.
– ACC fans perceived the academic prestige of their most significant rival more than fans in any other conference.

Havard, C. T., Eddy, T. W., & Ryan, T. D. (in press). Examining the impact of team identification and gender on rival perceptions and behavior of intercollegiate athletics fans. Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters.
– Stronger identification with a favorite team leads to greater sense of satisfaction when their favorite team defeats their rival team.
– Stronger identification with a favorite team leads to greater likelihood of attending a rivalry game, watching a rivalry game, reading about the favorite team when playing a rival team.
– Females more likely to watch a rivalry game on television or the Internet than male fans.
– Males with lower levels of identification with a favorite team more likely than females with lower levels of identification to attend a rivalry game.



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