Selected Works on Rivalry

Havard, C. T (2014). Glory Out of Reflected Failure: The examination of how rivalry affects sport fans. Sport Management Review, 17, 243-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2013.09.002.

– Interviews with fans of intercollegiate athletics revealed four themes:
– Socialization – the introduction of the fan to the favorite team.
– In-group bias – the level of derogation displayed toward the rival team.
– Sense of Satisfaction – the satisfaction a fan receives when their favorite team defeats the rival team in direct competition.
– Out-group Indirect Competition – the feelings a fan experiences when the rival team is successful or unsuccessful in contests not involving the favorite team.
– Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) – “the enjoyment one gets from the defeat of their favorite team’s rival by a team other than the favorite” (p.250).
– GORFing extends schadenfreude and supports in-group bias.

Havard, C. T., Gray, D. P., Gould, J., Sharp, L. A., & Schaffer, J. J. (2013). Development and validation of the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS). Journal of Sport Behavior, 36, 45-65.
– The Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS) was developed and validated using fans of intercollegiate athletics.
– The SRFPS measures four aspects of a rivalry:
– Out-group Indirect Competition (OIC) – The likelihood that a fan will support the athletic efforts of the favorite team’s rival in indirect competition.
– Out-group Academic Prestige (OAP) – The amount of respect a fan has for the academic prestige of the institution where the favorite team’s rival plays.
– Out-group Sportsmanship (OS) – The perceptions of fan sportsmanship of the favorite team’s rival.
– Sense of Satisfaction (SoS) – The satisfaction a fan gets when the favorite team defeats the favorite team’s rival.
– The SRFPS can be used to measure the degree of negative perceptions of a rival team.

Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Ryan, T. D. (2013). Investigating the impact of conference realignment on rivalry in intercollegiate athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(4), 224-234.
– Investigation of intercollegiate fans of teams that switched athletic conferences.
– Fans reserved more negative perceptions of the rival in the conference the favorite team was leaving than the conference the favorite team was joining.
– Fans were less likely to support the rival via indirect competition in the conference the favorite team was leaving than the rival in the conference the favorite team was joining.
– Fans were more likely to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression toward the rival in the conference the favorite team was leaving than the conference the favorite team was joining.

Havard, C. T., Reams, L., & Gray, D. P. (2013). Perceptions of highly identified fans regarding rival teams in United States intercollegiate football and men’s basketball. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 14, 116-132.
– Found that the team followed (football or basketball), season ticket holder status, and the outcome of the most recent rivalry game caused differences in perceptions of a rival team.
– Fans of basketball teams, season ticket holders, and fans of teams that lost the most recent rivalry contest held stronger negative perceptions of the academic prestige at the rival institution.
– Season ticket holders and fans of teams that lost the most recent rivalry contest experienced more satisfaction when their favorite team beat the rival team in direct competition.

Havard, C. T. & Eddy, T. (2013). Qualitative assessment of rivalry and conference realignment in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 6, 216-235. Published online September, 2013.
– Interviews with fans of teams that changed athletic conferences found that:
– Fans have a fundamental need for rivalry with other teams in a conference.
– Fans will find many ways to derogate or put down a rival team.
– Fans felt a rivalry developed through a history of on-field competition, and believed the rivalry would diminish following conference realignment. Fans were also excited to be joining a new conference and were readily identifying teams in the new conference to call rival.

Havard, C. T. (2016). Rivalry among teams and conferences in intercollegiate athletics: Does a conference pride phenomenon exist? Journal of Contemporary Athletics, 10, 19-32. 
– Evidence that fans of different teams and conference affiliation hold different rival perceptions.

Havard, C.T., & Reams, L. (2016). Investigating differences in fan rival perceptions between conferences in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 39, 126-146. 
– Provides supporting evidence that fans in different conferences report different perceptions of rival teams.
– SEC fans less willing than fans in Big Ten and Big 12 to support their most significant rival in a game against another team.
– SEC fans perceived the academic prestige and fan behavior of their most significant rival more negatively than fans in any other conference.
– ACC fans perceived the academic prestige of their most significant rival more than fans in any other conference.

Havard, C. T., Eddy, T. W., & Ryan, T. D. (2016). Examining the impact of team identification and gender on rival perceptions and behavior of intercollegiate athletics fans. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 8(2), 33-49. 
– Stronger identification with a favorite team leads to greater sense of satisfaction when their favorite team defeats their rival team.
– Stronger identification with a favorite team leads to greater likelihood of attending a rivalry game, watching a rivalry game, reading about the favorite team when playing a rival team.
– Females more likely to watch a rivalry game on television or the Internet than male fans.
– Males with lower levels of identification with a favorite team more likely than females with lower levels of identification to attend a rivalry game.

Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Ryan, T. D. (forthcoming). I love to see them lose: Investigating fan perceptions and behaviors toward rival teams. In C. L. Wang’s (Ed.). Exploring the Rise of Fandom in Contemporary Consumer Culture. IGI Global.

  • Investigated the impact the level of team identification a fan feels toward their favorite team has on rival perceptions (using the SRFPS), Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing), and willingness to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression. Also, compared GORFing and schadenfreude.
  • The higher level of identification a fan felt with their favorite team, the more negative they were toward their rival.
    • They were less likely to support the rival against another team.
    • Perceived the prestige of the rival to be more negative.
    • Perceived the behavior of rival fans to be more negative.
    • Expereinced greater sense of satisfaction when the favorite team beat the rival team.
  • GORFing and schadenfreude are distinct phenomena.
    • Schadenfruede is taking pleasure in the demise of another. GORFing invlvoles the rival team, and the rival failure somehow makes the favorite team and fan look better.
  • Fans with higher levels of identification were more likely to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression toward rival participants and fans.
  • Fan rival perceptions (using the SRFPS) significantly influenced their willingness to consider committing acts of anonymous aggression toward rival participants and fans.
    • The more neative fans felt regarding their perceptions of rival fan behavior and rival prestige, the more likely they were to consider anonymous acts of aggression.
  • Fan rival perceptions mediated the relationship between level of team identification and likelihood of considering anonymous aggression.
  • Fans with higher level of team identification were more likely to experience GORFing when their rival lost to a team other than their favorite team.
  • Fan rival perceptions (using the SRFPS) significantly influenced likelihood to experience GORFing when their rival team lost to someone other than their favorite team.
    • All SRFPS factors influenced likelihood of GORFing.
  • Fan rival perceptions mediated the relationship between level of team identification and likelihood of GORFing.

Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Ryan, T. D. (2017). Reinvestigating the impact of conference realignment on rivalry in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 9(2), 25-36.

  • Examined fan reactions to a change in rivalry due to conference realignment, and the length of time it takes to alter fan perception following realignment.
  • Revisited a study on conference realignment and rivalry (Havard, Wann, & Ryan 2013).
  • Fans reported stronger negative perceptions of the former rival than the current rival for on-field characteristics.
    • They were less likely to support the forme rival against another team
    • They experience greater sense of satisfaction when their favorite team beat the former rival team.
  • Fans reported stronger negative perceptions of the current rival than the former rival for off-field characteristics.
    • They believed fans of the current rival behaved more negatively.
    • They perceived the current rivals prestige to be mofe negative.
  • Fans were more likely to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression toward participants and fans of the former rival than participants and fans of the current.
  • After playing in a new conference for three years, fans tried to move on to the current rival by eporting moe negativity regarding off-field characteristics, however, were still more negative toward the former (traditional) rival on on-field characteristics.
  • Administrators should expect a longer period of time than three seasons for fans to supplant the former rival with the current rival.

Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., Ryan, T. D., & O’Neal, N. (2017). Does time heal all wounds? A case study on rival perceptions before and after conference realignment. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(6), 823-832.

  • Comparatively addressed fan perceptions of rivalry occurring in a team’s previous and current conference through analyzation of the behaviors and feelings existing at the beginning of and following conference realignment.
  • Results confirm perceptions did not change in either rivalry concerning Missouri and Texas A&M prior to and following realignment.
  • TCU fans indicate there is significant difference in the rivalry with Boise State regarding sense of satisfaction, but no significant differences were indicted for out-group academic prestige and the sense of satisfaction regarding the Baylor Bears.
  • History and close competition are the dominant factors in creating and maintaining a rivalry, which helps to explain why fans of Texsx A&M and Missouri did not significantly differ in their perceptions of the forme and current rival teams before and after conference realignment. Further, the history between TCU and Baylor helps to explain why TCU fans perceptions of Baylor were more negative following conference realignment, when the two teams again started playing regularly.

Havard, C. T., & Hutchinson (2017). Investigating rivalry in professional sport. International Journal of Sport Management, 18, 422-440.

  • First study to utilize the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS) to measure rival perceptions at the professional level.
  • Quantitatively tested Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) to measure the excitement fans experience when their rival team loses to someone other than their favorite team.
  • Fans showed stronger negative perceptions of their primary rival than their secondary
  • Fans slightly agree that they experience GORFing when the primary and secondary rival lose to another opponent that is not their favorite team
  • No more likely to experience GORFing if the primary loses to another team than if the secondary loses to another team
  • Fn likelihood to experience GORFing was positively influenced by the willingness to support the rival in indirect competition, perceived prestige of the rival, and sense of satisfaction experienced when the favorite team defeats the rival team

Wann, D. L., Havard, C. T., Grieve, F. G., Lanter, J. R., Partridge, J. A., & Zapalac, R. K. (2016) Investigating sport rivals: Number, evaluations, and relationship with team identification. Journal of Fandom Studies, 4, 71-88. 
– Illustrates that the level of identification with a favorite team can impact the way a fan perceives their rival.